Vanadium is widely dispersed in the environment and is essential in the control of some enzyme systems in humans, eg vanadate inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ ATPase and stimulates adenylate cyclase activity.
Occupational exposure to vanadium mainly occurs when fossil fuel oils rich in vanadium are burnt. The remaining ash contains vanadium, and workers who clean the boilers are at risk of exposure. Vanadium is also used in the manufacture of pigment paints and printing inks and is used in association with titanium in the manufacture of jet engines and air frames. Vanadium is excreted in the urine and levels correlate well with airborne vanadium.
Vanadium is relatively toxic at high levels, causing diarrhoea and vomiting. Dust particles cause irritation to the skin, eyes and lungs.
Send to separating if ambient on arrival. Send to trace metals if frozen on arrival.
Make aliquot for UCRN. Send primary sample to trace metals.
Vanadium has a 1/2 life between 15-40 hours therefore industrial samples are collected at end of shift at end of the working week.
Ambient (8 - 24 degrees Celsius)
Urine 20 mL,store fridge 4°C Minimum 5 mL urine
Transport to lab ambient in leak proof plastic pottles
Urine vanadium interpretation
0 – 20 nmol/L
Vanadium/creatinine ratio 0-2 nmol/mmol crn
To convert urine vanadium nmol/L to ug/L multiply by 0.051 For example 20 nmol/L = 1 ug/L (ppb).
Biological Exposure Index (vanadium pentoxide) 110 nmol/mmol creatinine, Health and Safety Laboratory,UK.
CDC (USA) has the same BEI
$38.22 (Exclusive of GST)
The urine pottle used for specimen collection must be shown to be free of Vanadium contamination.
Urgent testing by arrangement