Manganese, Urine

Diagnostic Use

Manganese is an essential micronutrient found throughout the body, with the highest levels found in the liver. It accumulates in tissues high in mitochondria and is a cofactor in enzymes such as hexokinase, superoxide dismutase and xanthine oxidase. Manganese is associated with bone and tissue formation, carbohydrate metabolism, reproductive processes and lipid metabolism. Manganese is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract with absorption being similar to iron absorption. Manganese is mainly excreted in bile with only a small amount excreted in urine. The human requirement for manganese is very low and even during prolonged TPN no clear evidence of deficiency has been documented. However because of the potential importance of manganese, additives containing it have been included in TPN regimens.
The concentration of whole blood manganese is about 10 times higher than in serum therefore the manganese from contamination is proportionately less significant, eliminating some sampling precautions. Whole blood manganese may better reflect manganese stores in tissue therefore it is recommended to use whole blood samples for assessment of manganese status and long term occupational exposure. Manganese is used in iron, steel and battery production industries. Occupational exposure to manganese is through the lungs via inhalation during mining of manganese ores and welding of mild steel (used as a toughening agent). Permanganate compounds are used in glass and ceramics industries and are also used as powerful oxidising agents.


Lipids/Trace Metals

Delphic Registration Code


Laboratory Handling


Send to separating if ambient. Send to trace metals if frozen.


Make aliquot for UCRN. Send primary sample to trace metals.

Turnaround Time

7 days

Test Code