Industrial exposure to fluoride occurs in the manufacture of superphosphate, where phosphate rock (which contains small amounts of fluoride) is crushed and dried, releasing fine particles of fluoride dust. Fluoride is also released as an impurity in the production of aluminium. Workers are monitored to prevent osteofluorosis.
Send to separating if ambient on arrival. Send to trace metals if frozen on arrival.
Make aliquot for UCRN. Send primary sample to trace metals.
For occupational exposure specimen is collected at the end of shift (within 2 hours)
Prior to Shift - Following a period of 16 hours with no exposure
Ambient (8 - 24 degrees Celsius)
Urine 20 mL. Store fridge 4°C Minimum urine 2 mL
Urine fluoride occupational exposure interpretation
Industrial sample results depend on pre or postshift sampling times.
The pre-shift sample reflects the body (skeletal) burden of fluoride
while post-shift samples reflect exposure.
Urgent testing by arrangement.
Reference Range 0-31 umol/L.
For industrial monitoring the Biological Exposure Index (2018)
prior to shift 105 umol/L (2 mg/L)
End of shift 160 umol/L (3mg/L)
Ion selective electrode
$90.55 (Exclusive of GST)