Cadmium metal is used as an anticorrosion coating for ferrous metals and in welding and brazing alloys. Cadmium compounds are used in nickel/cadmium batteries and as pigments in paints, plastics and glazes. The welding and gas cutting of cadmium coated steel carries a high risk due its high volatility. Cadmium occurs naturally with zinc and is a by-product in the smelting of zinc and some lead ores. Cadmium has a long biological half life (10-33 years) and accumulates progressively in the body. Tobacco smoking may significantly increase exposure to cadmium, as cigarettes contain 1-2 g of cadmium about 10% of which is absorbed. Cadmium accumulates in the liver and kidneys, which account for 50% of the body burden, and is excreted in the urine.
• Blood cadmium reflects average intake over the previous few months.
• Urine cadmium is indicative of body burden when exposure is low to moderate.
Send to separating if ambient on arrival. Send to lipids/trace metals if frozen on arrival.
Make aliquot for UCRN. Send primary sample to lipids/trace metals.
Yellow top pottles are not recommended for Cadmium collection due to cadmiun sulphide yellow pigment contamination.
Sampling time is not critical for exposure
Chilled (2 - 8 degrees Celsius)
Normal urine cadmium < 18 nmol/L (<2.0 ug/L)
Normal urine cadmium/crn ratio <1.0 nmoL/mmoL.
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